How does a Chiller, Cooling Tower and Air Handling Unit work together to provide air conditioning (HVAC) to a building. In this article we will be covering this topic to understand the basics of HVAC central plant.
Scroll to the bottom to watch the video tutorial on this subject
The main system components of the central cooling plant are the:
- Air Handling Unit (AHU)
- Cooling Tower
The chiller will usually be located either in the basement or on the roof and this depends on what type of chiller is used. Roof top chillers are usually “Air cooled” whereas basement chillers are usually “Water cooled” but they both perform the same function which is to generate cold water for air conditioning by removing the unwanted heat from the building. The only difference is how the chiller discards the unwanted heat.
Air cooled chillers will use fans to blow cool ambient air over their condenser to remove heat from the system, this type does not use a cooling tower. You can learn about this system and watch the video tutorial by clicking here. For the remainder of this article we will focus on water cooled chillers and cooling towers.
The water cooled chiller has two large cylinders, one is called the evaporator and the other is called the condenser.
The evaporator of the chiller is where the “chilled water” is generated. The “chilled water” leaves the evaporator at around 6°C (42.8°F) and is pushed around the building by the chilled water pump. The chilled water flows up the height of the building to each floor in pipes known as “risers”. These pipes are known as risers no matter if the water is flowing upwards or downwards within them.
The chilled water branches off the risers into smaller diameter pipes which head to the fan coil units (FCU’s) and Air Handling Units (AHU’s) to provide air conditioning. The AHU’s and FCU’s are basically boxes with fans inside that suck air in from the building and push it across the heating or cooling coils to change the temperature of the air and then push this air back out into the building. The chilled water enters the AHU/FCU and passes through the cooling coil (a series of thin pipes) where it will absorb the heat of the air blowing across. The chilled water heats up and the air blowing across it cools down. When the chilled water leaves the cooling coil it will now be warmer at around 12°C (53.6°F). The warm chilled water then heads back to the evaporator, via the return riser, and once it enter the evaporator a refrigerant will absorb the unwanted heat and move this over to the condenser. The chilled water will then leave cool again, ready to circulate around the building and collect more unwanted heat. Note: the chilled water is referred to as “chilled water” no matter if it is warm or cool.
The condenser of the chiller is where the unwanted heat is collected before being sent to the cooling towers. A refrigerant passes between the evaporator and the condenser to move all the unwanted heat. Another loop of water, known as “condenser water”, passes in a loop between the condenser and the cooling tower. The refrigerant collects the heat from the “chilled water” loop in the evaporator and moves this to the “condenser water” loop in the condenser.
The condenser water enters the condenser at around 27°C (80.6°F) and will pass through, collecting heat along the way. By the time it leaves the condenser it will be around 32°C (89.6°F). The condenser water and the refrigerant never mix, they are always separated by the pipe wall, heat just transfers through the wall. Once the condenser water has passed through the condenser and picked up the unwanted heat, it will head up to the cooling towers to dump this heat and return cooler ready to collect more heat.
The cooling tower is usually located up on the roof and is the final destination for the unwanted heat in the building. The cooling tower contains a large fan which blows air through the unit. The condenser water is pumped up to the cooling towers and it is sprayed into the air stream. The cool ambient air will enter and come in direct contact with the spray of condenser water (in an open cooling tower) this will allow the heat of the condenser water to transfer into the air and this air is then blown out into the atmosphere. The condenser water then collects and heads back to the chillers condenser ready to collect more heat. Check out our special tutorial on cooling towers here.